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Global Fixed Income Bulletin
January 15, 2020
Living the High Life Again…but for How Long?
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January 15, 2020

Living the High Life Again…but for How Long?

Global Fixed Income Bulletin

Living the High Life Again…but for How Long?

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January 15, 2020


December provided a remarkable ending to a remarkable year.  The world’s problems seemed to recede as financial markets melted up.  While government bond yields continued to rise for the fourth month in a row following better economic news (and more importantly hopes!) and reduced trade tensions, corporate bonds — both high yield and investment grade — saw meaningful tightening of spreads as did many emerging market bonds. The U.S. dollar reversed course, falling significantly on a trade weighted basis as well as against most individual currencies. The performance of high yield was particularly notable, generating the third best monthly performance this cycle. Most impressive was the performance of previous laggards, CCC-rated bonds and the energy sector, with each returning over 5% for the month. How much of this was a one-off due to December illiquidity and how much a start of a new trend remains to be seen.


One should not expect this Christmas present to investors to repeat itself in 2020. Optimism grew and data improved; and trade war concerns seemed to have peaked. And, most importantly, the monetary easing seen in 2019 will likely not be repeated.  Indeed, one of the risks for 2020 might be a surprise rise in inflation. Moreover, risk events are still out there: renewed Middle East tensions, Trump’s impeachment, disappointing business confidence data, particularly in the U.S., and U.S./China trade, to name just a few examples.  While we do not think these issues are likely to change the direction of the global economy, we do not think there is a lot of upside for financial markets in the near term, given current asset prices. A focus on security selection remains of paramount importance to take advantage of pockets of opportunity and avoid overvalued sectors/countries.

Display 1: Asset Performance Year-To-Date

Note: USD-based performance. Source: Bloomberg. Data as of December 31, 2019. The indexes are provided for illustrative purposes only and are not meant to depict the performance of a specific investment. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. See below for index definitions.

Display 2: Currency Monthly Changes Versus USD

Source: Bloomberg. Data as of December 31, 2019. Note: Positive change means appreciation of the currency against the USD.

Display 3: Major Monthly Changes in 10-Year Yields and Spreads

Source: Bloomberg, JP Morgan. Data as of December 31, 2019


Fixed Income Outlook

December’s returns added to an already stellar year.  Only developed-market government bonds sold off in December, as one would expect given the improving economic data and renewed optimism that the economic malaise that had consumed the world for the past two years was coming to an end. Indeed, if we view the last two years as a “mini” recession, this economic expansion is not 10 years old; it could be much younger! While that is a bit of an exaggeration, it does point out that the economic data could improve for several years, like the late 1990s and 2005-2006.

Corporate bonds of all flavors had outsized returns in December, particularly CCC rated bonds and energy related companies. In many ways this was understandable given their poor performance in November and for the year as a whole.  The U.S. dollar also sold off notably, but for the year as a whole the currency still appreciated, on a trade weighted basis.  A weaker dollar would be a welcome development for the global economy and hopefully a harbinger of good news on the trade front in 2020. But with a mercurial President Trump still directing policy, there are reasons to be cautious, with renewed Middle Eastern tensions certainly a reminder of potential pitfalls in the months ahead.

December’s Christmas present to investors should not be construed in general as a down payment on further gifts. Credit spreads have tightened closer to cycle lows without a lot of “new news” in December.  Most bonds, both government and corporate, do not appear “cheap.”  That makes us a bit nervous about the market’s ability and willingness to absorb supply in Q1. However, this does not mean we are bearish as fundamentals are quite solid.  The general macro environment is improving, absent some surprisingly weak US business confidence indicators (e.g., the ISM and CEO confidence indicators). This makes us more confident that global yields have bottomed and credit is well supported, albeit on the expensive side of fair value.  With central banks likely to be firmly on hold in 2020, lagged effects of monetary easing should still support the economy. Fiscal policy is likely to be neutral to easy, inflation stable to slightly higher and the environment is likely to be positive for nongovernment bonds.  But we would like to see wider spreads, and/or even stronger fundamentals, before increasing risk exposure further to credit. A small credit long, based on solid and/or improving fundamentals, a more meaningful EM long and modest underweight interest rate risk (concentrated in the US, core Europe, Japan and UK) look appropriate.

For the first time in a while, U.S. exceptional economic and financial market outperformance is abating.  It is not yet clear if this will be a 2020 trend or merely a blip, but, it does bode well for a weaker dollar story and stronger emerging market (EM) currencies, the largest laggards in 2019.  EM FX is one area where we are comfortable holding more risk as we enter 2020.

In summary, fundamentals are good; government bonds look rich but are supported by still accommodative central banks; credit spreads seem expensive; and emerging markets generally look like a better value than developed markets. For spreads to rally further we will require good economic data, confirming the current optimism, and confirmation that central banks will not rescind on their wait-and-see strategy; holding back on tightening policy until inflation rises to, or above, target levels.  The least vulnerable area of fixed income remains securitized credit which seems immune to many of the forces potentially buffeting financial markets given the strength of the household sector, although, even here, after a strong 2019, valuations are no longer exceptionally attractive and are unlikely to repeat 2019’s performance.

Developed Markets

Monthly Review

Developed market sovereign bond yields rose once again in December, particularly in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada.1 Markets reacted positively to progress around geopolitical risks such as Brexit and the U.S. - China trade negotiations. On the central bank front, the European Central Bank and Bank of Japan are set to continue their purchase programs of fixed income assets through 2020, albeit at a slower pace. In the U.K., the Conservative Party achieved a significant victory at the December elections, winning 364 out of 650 seats and a far larger majority than was anticipated. This result means that the incumbent PM, Boris Johnson, now has a strong mandate to govern the country and negotiating the UK’s exit from the EU. Andrew Bailey was announced as the new Governor of the BoE, to replace Mark Carney who steps down at the end of January.2


Challenges remain to global growth in 2020. Central banks have become more accommodative, particularly in the U.S. and Eurozone, but further accommodation is unlikely unless the growth and inflation outlook deteriorates. Despite recent positive developments, the three major risks we see to the outlook remain Brexit, the U.S./China trade disputes, and the weakness in the manufacturing and trade sectors undermining the consumer sector.

Emerging Markets

Monthly Review

Risk sentiment improved as a “phase one” trade deal between the U.S. and China appeared to be in the making. EM currencies strengthened versus the dollar, leading the way for EM fixed income. Dollar-denominated sovereign debt outpaced corporate debt as both segments were driven by higher-yielding countries and companies. Commodity prices also rose in the period with broad gains in energy, metals, and agriculture products.3


Our baseline scenario envisions a global economic backdrop only marginally better than in 2019, thus leaving global monetary policy accommodation largely in place. Though we see a widening emerging market (EM) - developed market (DM) growth differential supporting EM assets, we expect EM fixed income to deliver more subdued returns relative to 2019, given our views on current valuations and limited scope for aggressive monetary policy accommodation in the developed world.


Monthly Review

December saw corporate spreads tighten in the U.S. and in Europe. Risk free yields ended the month higher, continuing the post-summer trend: the U.S. 10-year closed 10bp higher at 1.88%, and the German 10-year closed 18bp higher at -0.19%4.  The key drivers of tighter spreads in December were (1) a U.S./China “phase one” trade deal being reported; (2) a Tory victory in the UK election, potentially reducing BREXIT uncertainty; (3) macroeconomic data continued to stabilize with economic surprise indices ticking higher, especially in the Eurozone; (4) minimal negative corporate news; and (5) Little supply in a month of strong demand.


We expect 2020 to be a year of two halves with credit initially well supported by the improving economic backdrop, reduced political risk and strong demand for credit. As we move to the second half of 2020, we expect the uncertainty experienced in recent years to repeat, impacting confidence that the economy is rebounding. Whether the cause is fear of a recession, political volatility, or liquidation of credit positions creating a weak technical, we believe the result will be a year of two halves that warrants active management of credit, and reducing risk following periods of spread tightening by rotating to higher-quality, shorter-maturity credit.

Securitized Products

Monthly Review

Securitized market activity was fairly quiet in December, and securitized assets generally performed well during the month. Consumer credit conditions remain especially healthy, with historically low unemployment, rising wages and healthy spending rates, and increasing home sales which are being supported by low mortgage rates.  


We enter 2020 with a positive outlook for securitized market opportunities.  Agency MBS has cheapened meaningfully over the past two years and looks attractive on a risk-adjusted basis for the first time in many years.  Securitized credit opportunities also look attractive as fundamental credit conditions remain very positive for residential and consumer lending markets in both the U.S. and Europe. Securitized markets performed well in 2019, but still underperformed corporate credit markets due to less benefit from the rally in interest rates and less spread tightening relative to corporate credit markets in 2019. We believe returns in 2020 will be driven more by cash-flow carry and fundamental performance rather than a general decline in yields. With this backdrop, we expect securitized markets to outperform in 2020, given the wider risk-adjusted spreads, and lower duration-risk profile. 


1 Source: Bloomberg, Data as of December 31, 2019

2 Source: Bloomberg, Data as of December 31, 2019

3 Source: JP Morgan, Data as of December 31, 2019

4 Source: Bloomberg Barclays, Data as of December 31, 2019



Fixed-income securities are subject to the ability of an issuer to make timely principal and interest payments (credit risk), changes in interest rates (interest rate risk), the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity (market risk). In a rising interest-rate environment, bond prices may fall and may result in periods of volatility and increased portfolio redemptions. In a declining interest-rate environment, the portfolio may generate less income. Longer-term securities may be more sensitive to interest rate changes. Certain U.S. government securities purchased by the strategy, such as those issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. Public bank loans are subject to liquidity risk and the credit risks of lower-rated securities. High-yield securities (junk bonds) are lower-rated securities that may have a higher degree of credit and liquidity risk. Sovereign debt securities are subject to default risk. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities are sensitive to early prepayment risk and a higher risk of default, and may be hard to value and difficult to sell (liquidity risk). They are also subject to credit, market and interest rate risks. The currency market is highly volatile. Prices in these markets are influenced by, among other things, changing supply and demand for a particular currency; trade; fiscal, money and domestic or foreign exchange control programs and policies; and changes in domestic and foreign interest rates. Investments in foreign markets entail special risks such as currency, political, economic and market risks. The risks of investing in emerging market countries are greater than the risks generally associated with foreign investments. Derivative instruments may disproportionately increase losses and have a significant impact on performance. They also may be subject to counterparty, liquidity, valuation, correlation and market risks. Restricted and illiquid securities may be more difficult to sell and value than publicly traded securities (liquidity risk). Due to the possibility that prepayments will alter the cash flows on collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs), it is not possible to determine in advance their final maturity date or average life. In addition, if the collateral securing the CMOs or any third-party guarantees are insufficient to make payments, the portfolio could sustain a loss.

The Global Fixed Income team follows a seamless process with a global outlook. They seek to identify and capture the potential value in situations where the market's implied forecasts are extreme.


The indexes shown in this report are not meant to depict the performance of any specific investment, and the indexes shown do not include any expenses, fees or sales charges, which would lower performance. The indexes shown are unmanaged and should not be considered an investment. It is not possible to invest directly in an index.

The Bloomberg Barclays Euro Aggregate Corporate Index (Bloomberg Barclays Euro IG Corporate) is an index designed to reflect the performance of the euro-denominated investment-grade corporate bond market.

The Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Corporate Index is the corporate component of the Barclays Global Aggregate index, which provides a broad-based measure of the global investment-grade fixed income markets.

The Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Corporate Index (Bloomberg Barclays U.S. IG Corp) is a broad-based benchmark that measures the investment-grade, fixed-rate, taxable corporate bond market.

The Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Corporate High Yield Index measures the market of USD-denominated, non-investment grade, fixed-rate, taxable corporate bonds. Securities are classified as high yield if the middle rating of Moody’s, Fitch, and S&P is Ba1/BB+/BB+ or below. The index excludes emerging market debt.

The Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Mortgage Backed Securities (MBS) Index tracks agency mortgage-backed pass-through securities (both fixed-rate and hybrid ARM) guaranteed by Ginnie Mae (GNMA), Fannie Mae (FNMA) and Freddie Mac (FHLMC). The index is constructed by grouping individual TBA-deliverable MBS pools into aggregates or generics based on program, coupon and vintage. Introduced in 1985, the GNMA, FHLMC and FNMA fixed-rate indexes for 30- and 15-year securities were backdated to January 1976, May 1977 and November 1982, respectively. In April 2007, agency hybrid adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) pass-through securities were added to the index.

Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure that examines the weighted average of prices of a basket of consumer goods and services, such as transportation, food and medical care.

Euro vs. USD—Euro total return versus U.S. dollar.

German 10YR bonds—Germany Benchmark 10-Year Datastream Government Index; Japan 10YR government bonds —Japan Benchmark 10-Year Datastream Government Index; and 10YR U.S. Treasury—U.S. Benchmark 10-Year Datastream Government Index.

The ICE BofAML European Currency High-Yield Constrained Index (ICE BofAML Euro HY constrained) is designed to track the performance of euro- and British pound sterling-denominated below investment-grade corporate debt publicly issued in the eurobond, sterling

The ICE BofAML U.S. Mortgage-Backed Securities (ICE BofAML U.S. Mortgage Master) Index tracks the performance of U.S. dollar-denominated, fixed-rate and hybrid residential mortgage pass-through securities publicly issued by U.S. agencies in the U.S. domestic market.

The ICE BofAML U.S. High Yield Master II Constrained Index (ICE BofAML U.S. High Yield) is a market value-weighted index of all domestic and Yankee high-yield bonds, including deferred-interest bonds and payment-in-kind securities. Its securities have maturities of one year or more and a credit rating lower than BBB-/Baa3, but are not in default.

The ISM Manufacturing Index is based on surveys of more than 300 manufacturing firms by the Institute of Supply Management. The ISM Manufacturing Index monitors employment, production inventories, new orders and supplier deliveries. A composite diffusion index is created that monitors conditions in national manufacturing based on the data from these surveys.

Italy 10-Year Government Bonds—Italy Benchmark 10-Year Datastream Government Index.

The JP Morgan CEMBI Broad Diversified Index is a global, liquid corporate emerging markets benchmark that tracks U.S.-denominated corporate bonds issued by emerging markets entities.

The JPMorgan Government Bond Index—Emerging markets (JPM local EM debt) tracks local currency bonds issued by emerging market governments. The index is positioned as the investable benchmark that includes only those countries that are accessible by most of the international investor base (excludes China and India as of September 2013).

The JPMorgan Government Bond Index Emerging Markets (JPM External EM Debt) tracks local currency bonds issued by emerging market governments. The index is positioned as the investable benchmark that includes only those countries that are accessible by most of the international investor base (excludes China and India as of September 2013).

The JP Morgan Emerging Markets Bond Index Global (EMBI Global) tracks total returns for traded external debt instruments in the emerging markets and is an expanded version of the EMBI+. As with the EMBI+, the EMBI Global includes U.S. dollar-denominated Brady bonds, loans and eurobonds with an outstanding face value of at least $500 million.

The JP Morgan GBI-EM Global Diversified Index is a market-capitalization weighted, liquid global benchmark for U.S.-dollar corporate emerging market bonds representing Asia, Latin America, Europe and the Middle East/Africa.

JPY vs. USD—Japanese yen total return versus U.S. dollar.

The National Association of Realtors Home Affordability Index compares the median income to the cost of the median home.

The Nikkei 225 Index (Japan Nikkei 225) is a price-weighted index of Japan’s top 225 blue-chip companies on the Tokyo Stock Exchange.

The MSCI AC Asia ex-Japan Index (MSCI Asia ex-Japan) captures large- and mid-cap representation across two of three developed markets countries (excluding Japan) and eight emerging markets countries in Asia.

The MSCI All Country World Index (ACWI, MSCI global equities) is a free float-adjusted market capitalization weighted index designed to measure the equity market performance of developed and emerging markets. The term "free float" represents the portion of shares outstanding that are deemed to be available for purchase in the public equity markets by investors. The performance of the Index is listed in U.S. dollars and assumes reinvestment of net dividends.

MSCI Emerging Markets Index (MSCI emerging equities) captures large- and mid-cap representation across 23 emerging markets (EM) countries.

The MSCI World Index (MSCI developed equities) captures large and mid-cap representation across 23 developed market (DM) countries.

Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) is an indicator of the economic health of the manufacturing sector.

The S&P 500® Index (U.S. S&P 500) measures the performance of the large-cap segment of the U.S. equities market, covering approximately 75 percent of the U.S. equities market. The index includes 500 leading companies in leading industries of the U.S. economy.

The S&P/LSTA U.S. Leveraged Loan 100 Index (S&P/LSTA Leveraged Loan Index) is designed to reflect the performance of the largest facilities in the leveraged loan market.

The S&P GSCI Copper Index (Copper), a sub-index of the S&P GSCI, provides investors with a reliable and publicly available benchmark for investment performance in the copper commodity market.

The S&P GSCI Softs (GSCI soft commodities) Index is a sub-index of the S&P GSCI that measures the performance of only the soft commodities, weighted on a world production basis. In 2012, the S&P GSCI Softs Index included the following commodities: coffee, sugar, cocoa and cotton.

Spain 10-Year Government Bonds—Spain Benchmark 10-Year Datastream Government Index.

The Thomson Reuters Convertible Global Focus USD Hedged Index is a market weighted index with a minimum size for inclusion of $500 million (US), 200 million euro (Europe), 22 billion yen, and $275 million (Other) of convertible bonds with an equity link.

U.K. 10YR government bonds—U.K. Benchmark 10-Year Datastream Government Index. For the following Datastream government bond indexes, benchmark indexes are based on single bonds. The bond chosen for each series is the most representative bond available for the given maturity band at each point in time. Benchmarks are selected according to the accepted conventions within each market. Generally, the benchmark bond is the latest issue within the given maturity band; consideration is also given to yield, liquidity, issue size and coupon.

The U.S. Dollar Index (DXY) is an index of the value of the United States dollar relative to a basket of foreign currencies, often referred to as a basket of U.S. trade partners’ currencies.


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