1 NatCatSERVICE, MunichRe, March 2018.
2 NatCatSERVICE, MunichRe. (https://natcatservice.munichre.com/overall/1?filter=eyJ5ZWFyRnJvbSI6MTk4MCwieWVhclRvIjoyMDE4LCJldmVudEZhbWlseUlkcyI6WzQsNSw3XX0%3D&type=1; accessed on 10/30/2019)
3 “A Call for Action: Climate Change as a Source of Financial Risk,” Network for Greening the Financial System, 2019
4 ISS-ESG, MSCI ACWI index, Morgan Stanley analysis.
6 See, for example, the Report of the High-Level Commission on Carbon Prices co-chaired by Nobel Laureate Joseph Stiglitz and Lord Nicholas Stern, https://www.carbonpricingleadership.org/report-of-the-highlevel-commission-on-carbon-prices.
ESG strategies that incorporate impact investing and/or environmental, social and governance (ESG) factors could result in relative investment performance deviating from other strategies or broad market benchmarks, depending on whether such sectors or investments are in or out of favor in the market. As a result, there is no assurance ESG strategies could result in more favorable investment performance.
There is no assurance that a portfolio will achieve its investment objective. Portfolios are subject to market risk, which is the possibility that the market values of securities owned by the portfolio will decline and that the value of portfolio shares may therefore be less than what you paid for them. Market values can change daily due to economic and other events (e.g. natural disasters, health crises, terrorism, conflicts and social unrest) that affect markets, countries, companies or governments. It is difficult to predict the timing, duration, and potential adverse effects (e.g. portfolio liquidity) of events. Accordingly, you can lose money investing in a portfolio.
In general, equity securities’ values also fluctuate in response to activities specific to a company. Investments in foreign markets entail special risks such as currency, political, economic, and market risks. The risks of investing in emerging market countries are greater than risks associated with investments in foreign developed countries. Fixed income securities are subject to the ability of an issuer to make timely principal and interest payments (credit risk), changes in interest rates (interest-rate risk), the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity (market risk). In a rising interest-rate environment, bond prices may fall and may result in periods of volatility and increased portfolio redemptions. In a declining interest-rate environment, the portfolio may generate less income. Longer-term securities may be more sensitive to interest rate changes. Real estate investments, including real estate investment trusts, are subject to risks similar to those associated with the direct ownership of real estate.
Alternative investments are speculative, involve a high degree of risk, are highly illiquid, typically have higher fees than other investments, and may engage in the use of leverage, short sales, and derivatives, which may increase the risk of investment loss. These investments are designed for investors who understand and are willing to accept these risks. Performance may be volatile, and an investor could lose all or a substantial portion of its investment.
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